Thursday, 25 April 2024

Low Cost Aluminium Ion Battery with High Energy Density and Long Life Cycle

08 Dec 2020

The findings since 2015, ionic liquid electrolyte used with aluminium ion battery shows long life cycle (>7500 cycles) and 250,000 cycles in graphene cathode.

A paper in 2013 shows cathodic current density of graphite fluoride cathode in aluminium ion battery to be as high as 225mAh/g

Here we propose a new combination of graphite fluoride, carbon monofluoride, CAS No. 51311-17-2 in AlCl3/ Al[TfO]3 -Triethylamine hydrochloride/ 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide/ trihexyl-tetradecyl-phosphonium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide/ dicyanamide/ 4- propylpyridine/ diglyme/NMA-urea and aluminium foil as anode. We believe that the combination should bring high energy density and long life cycle aluminium ion battery.

Pre Experiment

Since aluminium ion deploy aluminium as anode. We select aluminium foil 0.0015cm thickness as anode material

Cahodic active material loading (graphite fluoride) assumed to be 2.76mg/cm2

Seperator is commercial PE Li-ion seperator 16um thickness weighs 10g/m2


Cut Aluminium foil 10x20cm for anode and prepare cathode with grphite fluoride coating to another aluminium foil as cathodic current collector.

As mentions above, we found that aluminium foils weight are


Graphite Fluoride weight is

2.76x20x10x2/1000= 1.104 g

Seperator Weight is

(10×20/10,000)x10x2= 0.4g

Total Anode material + cathode material is

1.62+1.104+0.4= 3.124 g

Assumed that electrolyte weight is 5%, we calculate the whole cell weight as
3.124 /0.95= 3.288 g

Aluminium foil is (1.62/3.288)x100= 50%

Graphite Fluoride is (1.104/3.288 )x100= 33.58%

Find material when cell weight is 1Kg

Aluminium foil is 500g

Graphite Fluoride is 336g

Seperator area is 245=(AxHx2.7)x2

A= 250/(0.0015×2.7)x2= 12.4 m2

Find Price per kilogram

Aluminium Foil is 0.5×3.2= 1.6 USD Alibaba

Graphite Fluoride is 0.336×4= 1.344 USD Alibaba

Seperator is 12.4×0.1= 1.24 USD Made in China

Electrolyte Al[TfO]3:NMA:Urea = 1.15:4

Al[TfO]3 หนัก 50/20= 2.5g ราคา 2.5×0.03=0.075 USD Alibaba

NMA หนัก 2.5×15= 37.5g ราคา 37.5×0.01=0.375 USD Alibaba

Urea หนัก 2.5×4= 1g ราคา 1×0.001= 0.001USD Alibaba


1.6 +
1.344 +
1.24 +
0.075 +
0.375+ 0.01 = 4.644 USD

From Paper show cathodic density 225mAh/g then cell should have current density 336×225/1000= 75.60Ah/kg

Where Aluminium ion voltage is 1.5V. Therefore cell should have energy density 113.4 Wh/kg

So price per kilowatt is 4.644 x1000/113.4= 40.95 USD


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  1. Fluorinated Natural Graphite Cathode for Rechargeable Ionic Liquid Based Aluminum-Ion Battery
  2. Low-cost AlCl3/Et3NHCl electrolyte for high-performance aluminum-ion battery
  3. Active material loading and raw aerial capacity